Microbes in Human Welfare


Describe the main ideas behind the biological control of pests and diseases.


Biological control means life against life. It is a natural and ecofriendly concept. It employs the natural organisms to control the population of pathogens and pests in an ecosystem. Classical examples are Trichoderma which is antagonist against many soil borne plant pathogens. Similarly, Penicillium inhibits the growth of Staphylococcus and therefore has been successfully used in the production of Penicillin antibiotic to control many human bacterial pathogens.


Microbes in Human Welfare

Q 1.

Name an immune immunosuppressive agent.

Q 2.

Name the states involved in Ganga action plan.

Q 3.

Name any two species of fungus, which are used in the production of the antibiotics.

Q 4.

What for Nucleopolyhydro viruses are being used now-a-days?

Q 5.

Give any two microbes that are useful in biotechnology.

Q 6.

(a) Discuss about the major programs that the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, has initiated for saving major Indian rivers from pollution.
(b) Ganga has recently been declared the national river. Discuss the implication with respect to pollution of this river.

Q 7.

What is the source organism for EcoRI, restriction endonuclease?

Q 8.

What is sewage? In which way can sewage be harmful to us?

Q 9.

What is the key difference between primary and secondary sewage treatment?

Q 10.

Name the scientists who were credited for showing the role of Penicillin as an antibiotic.

Q 11.

Which type of food would have lactic acid bacteria? Discuss their useful application.

Q 12.

What are biofertilisers? Give two examples.

Q 13.

How do biofertilizers enrich the fertility of the soil?

Q 14.

Microbes can be used to decrease the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Explain how this can be accomplished.

Q 15.

What is a broad spectrum antibiotic? Name one such antibiotic.

Q 16.

Name a microbe used for statin production. How do statins lower blood cholesterol level?

Q 17.

Why are cyanobacteria considered useful in paddy fields?

Q 18.

How do microbes reduce the environmental degradation caused by chemicals?

Q 19.

Give an example of a rod shaped virus.

Q 20.

Find out the role of microbes in the following and discuss it with your teacher.
(a) Single cell protein (SCP)
(b) Soil

Q 21.

Give examples to prove that microbes release gases during metabolism.

Q 22.

Do you think microbes can also be used as source of energy? If yes, how?

Q 23.

How has the discovery of antibiotics helped mankind in the field of medicine?

Q 24.

Name any two industrially important enzymes.

Q 25.

What roles do enzymes play in detergents that we use for washing clothes? Are these enzymes produced from some unique microorganisms?

Q 26.

In which food would you find lactic acid bacteria? Mention some of their useful applications.

Q 27.

What would happen if our intestine harbours microbial flora exactly similar to that found in the rumen of cattle?

Q 28.

Write the most important characteristic that Aspergillus niger, Clostridium butylicum and Lactobacillus share.

Q 29.

Describe the main ideas behind the biological control of pests and diseases.

Q 30.

In which way have microbes played a major role in controlling diseases caused by harmful bacteria?

Q 31.

Three water samples namely river water, untreated sewage water and secondary effluent discharged from a sewage treatment plant were subjected to BOD test. The samples were labelled A, B and C; but the laboratory attendant did not note which was which. The BOD values of the three samples A, B and C were recorded as 20 mg/L, 8 mg/Land 400 mg/L, respectively. Which sample of the water is most polluted? Can you assign the correct label to each assuming the river water is relatively clean?

Q 32.

(a) What would happen if a large volume of untreated sewage is discharged into a river?
(b) In what way anaerobic sludge digestion is important in sewage treatments?

Q 33.

What is the group of bacteria found in both the rumen of cattle and sludge of sewage treatment?

Q 34.

How do mycorrhizal fungi help the plants harbouring them?

Q 35.

Why do we prefer to call secondary waste water treatment as biological treatment? .

Q 36.

Bacteria cannot be seen with the naked eyes, but these can be seen with the help of a microscope. If you have to carry a sample from your home to your biology laboratory to demonstrate the presence of microbes under a microscope, which sample would you carry and why?

Q 37.

Name some traditional Indian foods made of wheat, rice and Bengal gram (or their products) which involve use of microbes.

Q 38.

Which species of Penicillium produces Roquefort cheese?

Q 39.

Name a microbe used for the production of Swiss cheese.

Q 40.

What are fermentors?

Q 41.

How has the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis helped us in controlling caterpillars of insect pests?

Q 42.

Arrange the following in the decreasing order (most important first) of their importance, for the welfare of human society. Give reasons for your answer.Biogas, Citric acid, Penicillin and Curd.

Q 43.

Find out the name of the microbes from which Cyclosporin A (an immunosuppressive drug) and Statins (blood cholesterol lowering agents) are obtained.

Q 44.

Why are blue green algae not popular as biofertilisers?

Q 45.

Why is distillation required for producing certain alcoholic drinks?

Q 46.

Which bacterium has been used as a clot buster? What is its mode of action?

Q 47.

Why are floes important in biological treatment of waste water?

Q 48.

What is the chemical nature of biogas? Name an organism which is involved in biogas production.

Q 49.

How was penicillin discovered?

Q 50.

Draw a diagrammatic sketch of biogas plant and label its various components given below:  Gas Holder, Sludge Chamber, Digester, Dung+water chamber