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tide / waves

Waves are the raised swells of water that move along the surface of the ocean. At the beach, surfers ride on the waves:

The size of the waves depends on the general movement of the ocean water in the area, the shape of the sea floor, and whether there are storms or strong winds that can produce bigger waves.

The word tide refers to the variation in the general level of the ocean. Tides are caused by the gravitational forces of the moon and sun, as well as the rotation of the earth. Many places have one or two times of high tide and low tide per day:

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1. a / an / one
2. able / capable
3. accident / incident
4. accurate / exact / precise
5. ache / pain / hurt
6. actual / current / present
7. administrator / boss / manager
8. adverse / averse
9. advice / advise
10. affect / effect
11. afraid / scared / frightened
12. after / later
13. agenda / itinerary / schedule
14. ago / back / before
15. aid / assist / help
16. aim / goal / objective
17. alien / foreigner / stranger
18. alive / life / live
19. all / whole / every
20. all of / each of
21. all ready / already / all right / alright
22. allow / let / permit
23. allude / elude
24. almost / mostly / nearly
25. alone / lonely / only
26. already / yet
27. also / as well / too
28. altar / alter
29. although / though / even though
30. among / between
31. amoral / immoral
32. amount / number / quantity
33. ancient / antique
34. angry / upset
35. another / other / others
36. answer / reply / respond
37. any / some
38. apartment / flat / studio
39. apologize / sorry
40. apology / excuse
41. appraise / apprise
42. arrive / come / get / reach
43. as far as / as long as / as soon as
44. assure / ensure / insure
45. automobile / car / vehicle
46. await / wait / hope / expect
47. award / reward / prize
48. awkward / embarrassing
49. baggage / luggage
50. beach / coast / shore
51. beautiful / pretty
52. become / get / turn
53. been / gone
54. before / in front of / opposite / across from
55. beg / plead
56. begin / start
57. belong to / belong with / belong in
58. below / under / beneath / underneath
59. beside / besides
60. big / large
61. big / small / long / short / tall / huge / tiny
62. bill / invoice / receipt
63. blanket / comforter / quilt
64. borrow / lend / loan / owe
65. bother / disturb
66. bravery / courage
67. bring / take
68. bring up / grow up
69. Britain / England / the United Kingdom
70. broad / wide
71. by / until
72. can / could / able to
73. capital / capitol
74. carpet / mat / rug
75. ceiling / roof
76. chance / possibility / opportunity
77. change / switch
78. chauffeur / driver
79. city / downtown / town
80. classic / classical
81. clever / intelligent / smart
82. close / shut
83. close to / near / next to
84. cloth / clothes / clothing
85. collect / gather
86. come back / go back / get back
87. compliment / complement
88. concern / concerned / concerning
89. confident / confidant / confidence
90. continually / continuously
91. convince / persuade
92. could / should / would
93. council / counsel
94. critic / critical / criticism / critique
95. cure / treat / heal / recover
96. custom / habit
97. deadly / fatal / lethal
98. decent / descent / dissent
99. decline / deny / refuse / reject
100. defect / fault / flaw
101. definitely / definitively
102. delay / late / postpone
103. despite / in spite of
104. die / died / dead
105. difficult / hard
106. dilemma / quandary
107. dinner / supper / meal / snack
108. dirt / earth / soil
109. dirty / messy
110. disability / handicap / impairment
111. discover / find out / notice / realize
112. discreet / discrete
113. disease / illness
114. disinterested / uninterested
115. distinct / distinctive
116. do / make
117. dress / dressed / wear
118. during / while / meanwhile / meantime
119. e.g. / i.e.
120. early / soon
121. earn / gain / win
122. economic / economical
123. effective / efficient
124. either / neither
125. electric / electrical / electronic
126. empathy / sympathy
127. employees / staff
128. end / finish
129. enough / too
130. enquire / inquire
131. especially / specially
132. every day / everyday
133. ex- / former / previous
134. explore / exploit
135. extend / expand
136. famous / infamous
137. farther / further
138. fee / fare / tax
139. female / feminine / woman
140. few / little / less / fewer
141. fit / match / suit
142. floor / ground
143. for / since
144. forest / jungle / wood / woods
145. fun / funny
146. girl / lady / woman
147. good / well
148. good evening / good night
149. gratuity / tip
150. guarantee / warranty
151. gut / guts
152. hard / hardly
153. have / have got
154. have to / must / need to
155. haven't / don't have
156. hear / listen
157. hijack / kidnap
158. historic / historical
159. holiday / vacation
160. hope / wish
161. hopefully / thankfully
162. hostel / hotel / motel
163. house / home
164. how about...? / what about...?
165. human / humankind / human being / man / mankind
166. hundred / hundreds
167. I / my / me / mine / myself
168. I = subject
169. if / whether
170. If I was... / If I were...
171. ignore / neglect
172. ill / sick
173. impending / pending
174. imply / infer
175. in / into / inside / within
176. in / on / at
177. incite / insight
178. income / salary / wage
179. Indian / indigenous / Native American
180. inhabit / live / reside
181. intend / tend
182. interested / interesting
183. interfere / intervene
184. its / it's
185. job / work / career
186. just / only
187. kinds / types / sorts
188. know / meet
189. last / latest
190. last / past
191. late / lately
192. lay / lie
193. like / as
194. little / small
195. look / see / watch
196. lose / loose
197. lose / miss
198. made of / made from
199. marriage / married / wedding
200. may / might
201. moral / morale
202. Mr. / Mrs. / Ms. / Miss
203. music / song
204. nausea / nauseous / queasy
205. north / northern
206. notable / noticeable
207. ocean / sea / lake / pond
208. oppress / suppress / repress
209. overtake / take over
210. pass away / pass out
211. pass the time / spend time
212. peak / pique
213. persons / peoples
214. poison / venom
215. politics / policy
216. poor / pore / pour
217. pray / prey
218. principal / principle
219. problem / trouble
220. quiet / silent
221. raise / rise / arise
222. regard / regards / regardless
223. regretful / regrettable
224. relation / relationship
225. remember / remind / reminder
226. replace / substitute
227. resolve / solve
228. review / revise
229. rob / thief / steal
230. safety / security
231. sale / sell
232. say / tell / speak
233. scream / shout
234. sensible / sensitive
235. shade / shadow
236. so / such
237. so / very / a lot
238. some time / sometime / sometimes
239. stuff / things
240. such as / as such
241. suppose / supposed to
242. then / than
243. think about / think of
244. tide / waves
245. till / until
246. to / for
247. too / very
248. travel / trip / journey
249. United
250. wake / awake / sleep / asleep
251. wander / wonder
252. wary / weary
253. what / which
254. which / that
255. who / whom
256. will / would
257. worse / worst
258. year-old / years old
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  • World Architecture

    Bricks

    The Indus valley
    The humble brick literally shaped the face of world architecture. The Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, and Indus River valleys were the locations of what has been calledthe urban implosion, the sudden emergence of cities from the neolithic villages that lined the waterways. The alluvial expanses on whose agricultural produce the new urban centers burgeoned had little naturally occurring stone, so the city walls, the buildings within, and even the royal palaces were built of brick. Packed clay had been used for centuries, and as it does in parts of the Arab world today, it yielded soft, curvilinear free forms. The advantage of the brick was that it was a prefabricated modular building unit, made easy to handle by its size and weight. Its shape and standard sizefunctions of the manufacturing process inevitably generated a rectilinear architecture and affected the way people built by assembling units rather than allowing the building to grow as well as limiting such details as proportion and the subdivision of surfaces. Those causes and effects persist until this day. Sun-dried bricks were made from puddled clay, perhaps containing a little sand or gravel, reinforced with a fibrous material usually straw that minimized cracking as the bricks dried. The mixture was packed into wooden molds, without tops or bottoms, that were removed once initial hardening had occurred. The bricks were then stacked and left to dry in the sun, sometimes for as long as two years, before being used in buildings. They were usually set in beds of wet mud, although the ancient Egyptians are known to have used gypsum-based mortar. The Babylonians employed hot natural bitumen, imported from lakes at Id on the Iranian Plateau every several courses, the bed joints were reinforced with woven reeds. The dry climates of the river valleys presented few problems with weathering, but sometimes walls were plastered over with mud. The Indus valley culture employed kiln-fired bricks long before its contemporaries, in buildings, pavements, and drains. Fired bricks also appeared a little later in Mesopotamia, where they were employed only in such special situations as decorative facings with colored glazes of public buildings or copings on walls. Timber for building was in short enough supply, and it was unreasonable to use it unnecessarily to fuel kilns. In the land between the rivers, sophisticated brick technology was early applied to massive structures like King Ur-Nammus ziggurat at Ur ca. 2100 b.c.. It was mainly of sun-dried brick, with thick facings of fired brick. Sixteen centuries later the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II built his new city, with an 11-mile-long 17-kilometer outer wall and an inner wall wide enough to allow two chariots to be driven abreast on its top. Both of these huge structures were of sun-dried brick, and the northern Ishtar Gate was faced with blue glazed brick, ornamented with colored brick relief figures of bulls, dragons, and other beasts. Nebuchadnezzar also refaced the Marduk zigguratthought by some to be the Tower of Babelwith a 50-foot-thick 15-meter fired brick casing. Because the successive cultures that later dominated the region were builders in stone, the value of brick architecture was overlooked for centuries, to appear again in the Roman world. For the pragmatic Romans, brick construction was more economical than stone, so the material was widely used, Brick making became a major industry that eventually was nationalized. To maintain quality control, brick makers were obliged to stamp their products with the brick makers name and the place and date of manufacture. Flat Roman bricks, laid in thick beds of lime mortar, were used to build arches and principally aslost formwork in the ubiquitous concrete structures, in which they were covered with marble, mosaic, or stucco. Although it was maintained as a decorative material in the Byzantine Empire, with the decline of the Western Roman Empire, brick again went out of fashion. For several centuries after about a.d. 400, the only bricks used in western Europe were recycled from Roman buildings. It was only when those supplies were exhausted by about the beginning of the twelfth century that brick was again revived. As had been the case in the protohistoric river civilizations, necessity gave birth to invention, and brick architecture reappeared in the stone-poor Low Countries. Trade routes through Flanders were integral to the spreading use of bricks and clay roof tiles as building materials, and they moved as trade goods or as ballast in ships. Even toward the end of the Middle Ages, English architects and their clients regarded the brick as an exotic, luxurious, and somewhat suspicious building material.


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