### conjunctions

[clause + conjunction + clause
conjunction + clause, + clause]
• A conjunction joins two clauses.
I'm tired and I want to go to bed.
I tried hard but I couldn't understand.
His father died, so he had to stop his studies.
I know that you don't like her.
I'II sell it to you cheap because you 're a friend of mine.
She married him although she didn't love him.
We 'II start at eight o 'clock so that we can finish early.
I'd tell you if I knew.
And, but, so and that go between two clauses.
Most other conjunctions can also go at the beginning of a sentence.
Because you 're a friend of mine, I'll sell it to you cheap.
Although she didn't love him, she married him.
So that we can finish early, we'll start at eight o'clock.
If I knew, I'd tell you.
When a conjunction begins a sentence, there is usually a comma (,) between the two clauses.
• We do not usually write the two clauses separately, with a full stop (.) between them.
It was late when I got home. (NOT It was late. When I got home.)
But we can sometimes separate the two clauses in order to emphasize the second, especially with and, but, so, because and although.
James hated Mondays. And this Monday was worse than usual.
And we separate clauses in conversation (when two different people say them).
'John's late.' Because he was doing your shopping.
• One conjunction is enough to join two clauses. Don't use two.
Although she was tired, she went to work.
She was tired, but she went to work.
(NOT Although shewas tired, but she went to work.)
Because I liked him, I tried to help him.
I liked him, so I tried to help him.
(NOT Because I liked him, so I tried to help him.)
As you know, I work very hard.
You know that I work very hard.
(NOT -As you know, that I work very hard.)
• Relative pronouns (who, which and that) join clauses like conjunctions.
There's the girl who works with my sister.
A relative pronoun is the subject or object of the verb that comes after it. So we do not need another subject or object.
I've got a friend who works in a pub. (NOT . . . who he works . ..) The man (that) she married was an old friend of mine.
(NOT -The man (that) she married Mm . ..)
She always says thank-you for the money (that) I give her.
(NOT . . . for the money (that) I give it her.)
• 'copula1 verbs
• 'social' language
• (a) few and (a) little
• (a)round and about
• (be) used to + noun or... -ing
• (Great) Britain, the United Kingdom, the British Isles and England
• -ing form ('gerund')
• -ing form after to
• -ing form or infinitive?
• abbreviations
• above and over
• across and over
• across and through
• active verb forms
• actual(ly)
• adjectives ending in -Iy
• adjectives without nouns
• adverbs of manner
• adverbs: position (details)
• adverbs: position (general)
• after (conjunction)
• after (preposition); afterwards (adverb)
• after all
• afternoon, evening and night
• ages
• ago
• all (of) with nouns and pronouns
• all and every
• all and whole
• all right
• all with verbs
• all, everybody and everything
• almost and nearly
• also, as well and too
• although and though
• among and between
• and
• and after try, wait, go etc
• another
• any (= 'it doesn't matter which')
• any and no: adverbs
• appear
• articles: a and an; pronunciation of the
• articles: a/an
• articles: countable and uncountable nouns
• articles: introduction
• articles: special rules and exceptions
• articles: talking in general
• articles: the
• articles: the difference between a/an and the
• as and like
• as if and as though
• as much/many ... as ...
• as well as
• as, because and since (reason)
• as, when and while (things happening at the same time)
• as...as ...
• at all
• at, in and on (place)
• at, in and on (time)
• be + infinitive
• be with auxiliary do
• be: progressive tenses
• because and because of
• before (conjunction)
• before (preposition) and in front of
• begin and start
• big, large, great and tall
• born
• borrow and lend
• both (of) with nouns and pronouns
• both with verbs
• both... and...
• bring and take
• British and American English
• broad and wide
• but = except
• by: time
• can and could: ability
• can and could: forms
• can with remember, understand, speak, play, see, hear, feel, taste and smell
• can: permission, offers, requests and orders
• can: possibility and probability
• close and shut
• come and go
• comparison: comparative and superlative adjectives
• comparison: comparative and superlative adverbs
• comparison: much, far etc with comparatives
• comparison: using comparatives and superlatives
• conditional
• conjunctions
• contractions
• countable and uncountable nouns
• country
• dare
• dates
• determiners
• discourse markers
• do + -ing
• do and make
• do: auxiliary verb
• during and for
• during and in
• each and every
• each other and one another
• each: grammar
• either... or...
• either: determiner
• ellipsis (leaving words out)
• else
• emphasis
• emphatic structures with it and what
• enjoy
• enough
• even
• eventual(ly)
• ever
• every and every one
• except
• except and except for
• exclamations
• excuse me, pardon and sorry
• expect, hope, look forward, wait, want and wish
• explain
• fairly, quite, rather and pretty
• far and a long way
• farther and further
• fast
• feel
• fewer and less
• for + object + infinitive
• for, since, from, ago and before
• for: purpose
• future perfect
• future progressive
• future: introduction
• future: present progressive and going to
• future: shall and will (interpersonal uses)
• future: shall/will (predictions)
• future: simple present
• gender (masculine and feminine language)
• get (+ object) + verb form
• get + noun, adjective, adverb particle or preposition
• get and go: movement
• go ... -ing
• go meaning'become'
• go: been and gone
• half (of)
• hard and hardly
• have (got) to
• have (got): possession, relationships etc
• have + object + verb form
• have: actions
• have: auxiliary verb
• have: introduction
• hear and listen (to)
• help
• here and there
• holiday and holidays
• home
• hope
• how and what... like?
• if only
• if so and if not
• if-sentences with could and might
• if: ordinary tenses
• if: special tenses
• ill and sick
• imperative
• in and into (prepositions)
• in case
• in spite of
• indeed
• infinitive after who, what, how etc
• infinitive of purpose
• infinitive without to
• infinitive: negative, progressive, perfect, passive
• infinitive: use
• instead of... -ing
• inversion: auxiliary verb before subject
• inversion: whole verb before subject
• irregular verbs
• it's time
• it: preparatory object
• it: preparatory subject
• last and the last
• let's
• letters
• likely
• long and for a long time
• look
• look (at), watch and see
• marry and divorce
• may and might: forms
• may and might: permission
• may and might: probability
• mind
• modal auxiliary verbs
• more (of): determiner
• most (of): determiner
• much (of), many (of): determiners
• much, many, a lot etc
• must and have to; mustn't, haven't got to, don't have to, don't need to and needn't
• must: deduction
• must: forms
• must: obligation
• names and titles
• nationality words
• need
• negative questions
• negative structures
• neither (of): determiner
• neither, nor and not... either
• neither... nor...
• next and nearest
• next and the next
• no and none
• no and not
• no and not a/not any
• no more, not any more, no longer, not any longer
• non-progressive verbs
• noun + noun
• numbers
• once
• one and you: indefinite personal pronouns
• one: substitute word
• other and others
• ought
• own
• participle clauses
• participles used as adjectives
• participles: 'present' and 'past' participles (-ing and -ed)
• passive structures: introduction
• passive verb forms
• past tense with present or future meaning
• past time: past perfect simple and progressive
• past time: past progressive
• past time: present perfect progressive
• past time: present perfect simple
• past time: simple past
• past time: the past and perfect tenses (introduction)
• perfect tenses with this is the first time..., etc
• personal pronouns (I, me, it etc)
• play and game
• please and thank you
• possessive with determiners (a friend of mine, etc)
• possessive's: forms
• possessive's: use
• possessives: my and mine, etc
• prepositional verbs and phrasal verbs
• prepositions after particular words and expressions
• prepositions and adverb particles
• prepositions at the end of clauses
• prepositions before particular words and expressions
• prepositions: expressions without prepositions
• present tenses: introduction
• present tenses: present progressive
• present tenses: simple present
• progressive tenses with always
• punctuation: apostrophe
• punctuation: colon
• punctuation: comma
• punctuation: dash
• punctuation: quotation marks
• punctuation: semi-colons and full stops
• question tags
• questions: basic rules
• questions: reply questions
• questions: word order in spoken questions
• quite
• real(ly)
• reflexive pronouns
• relative pronouns
• relative pronouns: what
• relative pronouns: whose
• relatives: identifying and non-identifying clauses
• remind
• reported speech and direct speech
• reported speech: orders, requests, advice etc
• reported speech: pronouns; 'here and now' words; tenses
• reported speech: questions
• requests
• road and street
• say and tell
• see
• seem
• shall
• should
• should after why and how
• should and would
• should, ought and must
• should: (If I were you) I should ...
• similar words
• since (conjunction of time): tenses
• singular and plural: anybody etc
• singular and plural: irregular plurals
• singular and plural: plural expressions with singular verbs
• singular and plural: pronunciation of plural nouns
• singular and plural: singular words ending in -s
• singular and plural: singular words with plural verbs
• singular and plural: spelling of plural nouns
• slow(ly)
• small and little
• smell
• so am I, so do I etc
• so and not with hope, believe etc
• some and any
• some/any and no article
• some: special uses
• somebody and anybody, something and anything, etc
• sound
• spelling and pronunciation
• spelling: -ise and -ize
• spelling: -ly
• spelling: capital letters
• spelling: ch and tch, k and ck
• spelling: doubling final consonants
• spelling: final -e
• spelling: full stops with abbreviations
• spelling: hyphens
• spelling: ie and ei
• spelling: y and i
• still, yet and already
• subject and object forms
• subjunctive
• such and so
• suggest
• surely
• sympathetic
• take
• take (time)
• tall and high
• taste
• telephoning
• telling the time
• tenses in subordinate clauses
• that: omission
• the same
• there is
• think
• this and that
• too
• travel, journey and trip
• unless and if not
• until and by
• until and to
• used to + infinitive
• verbs with object complements
• verbs with two objects
• way
• weak and strong forms
• well
• when and if
• whether and if
• whether... or...
• which, what and who: question words
• who ever, what ever, how ever etc
• whoever, whatever, whichever, however, whenever and wherever
• will
• wish
• worth ... -ing
• would
• would rather
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### IRIDIUM MET

Iridium metallicum
Iridium.

Key Uses:
• Exhaustion and anemia following a bout of illness
• Lameness or partial paralysis, particularly in the elderly
• Muscle pain and stiffness, with tender, swollen joints
• Neuralgic and sciatic nerve pains
• Suppurating abscesses in the armpits

Origin : Obtained from osmiridium, an alloy of iridium, osmium, and platinum.

Background : This metal is named after the Greek goddess of the rainbow, Iris, due to its colorful salts. It is used in fountain-pen nibs and hypodermic needles.

Preparation : Iridium is triturated with lactose sugar.

Remedy Profile : Those who respond most effectively to Iridium met. are generally well presented and confident. If not successful in their plans or projects, or if they become ill and exhausted, they may experience confusion, with poor concentration and the feeling that their minds are empty.
Classic physical symptoms linked to Iridium met. include exhaustion and anemia following a bout of illness, and muscle pain and stiffness with tender, swollen joints. There may be nervous, pinching pains in the wrists, fingers, and limbs. In the hip joints there may be scraping, smarting pains and a crawling sensation; sciatic nerve pain may radiate down the legs. Neuralgic pains, perhaps in the back of the head, may be treated with Iridium met., as may lameness or partial paralysis, especially in the elderly. The remedy is also used to help prevent suppurating abscesses in the armpits.

Symptoms Better : For cold; for being indoors; for pressure on the affected area; for continued movement.

Symptoms Worse : For talking; on the left side of the body.

• Modify