(a) few and (a) little
(a)round and about
(be) used to + noun or... -ing
(Great) Britain, the United Kingdom, the British Isles and England
-ing form ('gerund')
-ing form after to
-ing form or infinitive?
above and over
across and over
across and through
active verb forms
adjectives ending in -Iy
adjectives without nouns
adverbs of manner
adverbs: position (details)
adverbs: position (general)
after (preposition); afterwards (adverb)
afternoon, evening and night
all (of) with nouns and pronouns
all and every
all and whole
all with verbs
all, everybody and everything
almost and nearly
also, as well and too
although and though
among and between
and after try, wait, go etc
any (= 'it doesn't matter which')
any and no: adverbs
articles: a and an; pronunciation of the
articles: countable and uncountable nouns
articles: special rules and exceptions
articles: talking in general
articles: the difference between a/an and the
as and like
as if and as though
as much/many ... as ...
as well as
as, because and since (reason)
as, when and while (things happening at the same time)
at, in and on (place)
at, in and on (time)
be + infinitive
be with auxiliary do
be: progressive tenses
because and because of
before (preposition) and in front of
begin and start
big, large, great and tall
borrow and lend
both (of) with nouns and pronouns
both with verbs
bring and take
British and American English
broad and wide
but = except
can and could: ability
can and could: forms
can with remember, understand, speak, play, see, hear, feel, taste and smell
can: permission, offers, requests and orders
can: possibility and probability
close and shut
come and go
comparison: comparative and superlative adjectives
comparison: comparative and superlative adverbs
comparison: much, far etc with comparatives
comparison: using comparatives and superlatives
countable and uncountable nouns
do + -ing
do and make
do: auxiliary verb
during and for
during and in
each and every
each other and one another
ellipsis (leaving words out)
emphatic structures with it and what
every and every one
except and except for
excuse me, pardon and sorry
expect, hope, look forward, wait, want and wish
fairly, quite, rather and pretty
far and a long way
farther and further
fewer and less
for + object + infinitive
for, since, from, ago and before
future: present progressive and going to
future: shall and will (interpersonal uses)
future: shall/will (predictions)
future: simple present
gender (masculine and feminine language)
get (+ object) + verb form
get + noun, adjective, adverb particle or preposition
get and go: movement
go ... -ing
go: been and gone
hard and hardly
have (got) to
have (got): possession, relationships etc
have + object + verb form
have: auxiliary verb
hear and listen (to)
here and there
holiday and holidays
how and what... like?
if so and if not
if-sentences with could and might
if: ordinary tenses
if: special tenses
ill and sick
in and into (prepositions)
in spite of
infinitive after who, what, how etc
infinitive of purpose
infinitive without to
infinitive: negative, progressive, perfect, passive
instead of... -ing
inversion: auxiliary verb before subject
inversion: whole verb before subject
it: preparatory object
it: preparatory subject
last and the last
long and for a long time
look (at), watch and see
marry and divorce
may and might: forms
may and might: permission
may and might: probability
modal auxiliary verbs
more (of): determiner
most (of): determiner
much (of), many (of): determiners
much, many, a lot etc
must and have to; mustn't, haven't got to, don't have to, don't need to and needn't
names and titles
neither (of): determiner
neither, nor and not... either
next and nearest
next and the next
no and none
no and not
no and not a/not any
no more, not any more, no longer, not any longer
noun + noun
one and you: indefinite personal pronouns
one: substitute word
other and others
participles used as adjectives
participles: 'present' and 'past' participles (-ing and -ed)
passive structures: introduction
passive verb forms
past tense with present or future meaning
past time: past perfect simple and progressive
past time: past progressive
past time: present perfect progressive
past time: present perfect simple
past time: simple past
past time: the past and perfect tenses (introduction)
perfect tenses with this is the first time..., etc
personal pronouns (I, me, it etc)
play and game
please and thank you
possessive with determiners (a friend of mine, etc)
possessives: my and mine, etc
prepositional verbs and phrasal verbs
prepositions after particular words and expressions
prepositions and adverb particles
prepositions at the end of clauses
prepositions before particular words and expressions
prepositions: expressions without prepositions
present tenses: introduction
present tenses: present progressive
present tenses: simple present
progressive tenses with always
punctuation: quotation marks
punctuation: semi-colons and full stops
questions: basic rules
questions: reply questions
questions: word order in spoken questions
relative pronouns: what
relative pronouns: whose
relatives: identifying and non-identifying clauses
reported speech and direct speech
reported speech: orders, requests, advice etc
reported speech: pronouns; 'here and now' words; tenses
reported speech: questions
road and street
say and tell
should after why and how
should and would
should, ought and must
should: (If I were you) I should ...
since (conjunction of time): tenses
singular and plural: anybody etc
singular and plural: irregular plurals
singular and plural: plural expressions with singular verbs
singular and plural: pronunciation of plural nouns
singular and plural: singular words ending in -s
singular and plural: singular words with plural verbs
singular and plural: spelling of plural nouns
small and little
so am I, so do I etc
so and not with hope, believe etc
some and any
some/any and no article
some: special uses
somebody and anybody, something and anything, etc
spelling and pronunciation
spelling: -ise and -ize
spelling: capital letters
spelling: ch and tch, k and ck
spelling: doubling final consonants
spelling: final -e
spelling: full stops with abbreviations
spelling: ie and ei
spelling: y and i
still, yet and already
subject and object forms
such and so
tall and high
telling the time
tenses in subordinate clauses
this and that
travel, journey and trip
unless and if not
until and by
until and to
used to + infinitive
verbs with object complements
verbs with two objects
weak and strong forms
when and if
whether and if
which, what and who: question words
who ever, what ever, how ever etc
whoever, whatever, whichever, however, whenever and wherever
worth ... -ing
[clause + conjunction + clause
conjunction + clause, + clause] A conjunction joins two clauses.
I'm tired and I want to go to bed. When a conjunction begins a sentence, there is usually a comma (,) between the two clauses.
I tried hard but I couldn't understand.
His father died, so he had to stop his studies.
I know that you don't like her.
I'II sell it to you cheap because you 're a friend of mine.
She married him although she didn't love him.
We 'II start at eight o 'clock so that we can finish early.
I'd tell you if I knew.
And, but, so and that go between two clauses.
Most other conjunctions can also go at the beginning of a sentence.
Because you 're a friend of mine, I'll sell it to you cheap.
Although she didn't love him, she married him.
So that we can finish early, we'll start at eight o'clock.
If I knew, I'd tell you.
We do not usually write the two clauses separately, with a full stop (.) between them.
It was late when I got home. (NOT It was late. When I got home.)
But we can sometimes separate the two clauses in order to emphasize the second, especially with and, but, so, because and although.
James hated Mondays. And this Monday was worse than usual.
And we separate clauses in conversation (when two different people say them).
'John's late.' Because he was doing your shopping.
One conjunction is enough to join two clauses. Don't use two.
Although she was tired, she went to work.
She was tired, but she went to work.
(NOT Although shewas tired, but she went to work.)
Because I liked him, I tried to help him.
I liked him, so I tried to help him.
(NOT Because I liked him, so I tried to help him.)
As you know, I work very hard.
You know that I work very hard.
(NOT -As you know, that I work very hard.)
Relative pronouns (who, which and that) join clauses like conjunctions.
There's the girl who works with my sister.
A relative pronoun is the subject or object of the verb that comes after it. So we do not need another subject or object.
I've got a friend who works in a pub. (NOT . . . who he works . ..) The man (that) she married was an old friend of mine.
(NOT -The man (that) she married Mm . ..)
She always says thank-you for the money (that) I give her.
(NOT . . . for the money (that) I give it her.)
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Key Uses:Exhaustion and anemia following a bout of illnessLameness or partial paralysis, particularly in the elderlyMuscle pain and stiffness, with tender, swollen jointsNeuralgic and sciatic nerve painsSuppurating abscesses in the armpits
Origin : Obtained from osmiridium, an alloy of iridium, osmium, and platinum.
Background : This metal is named after the Greek goddess of the rainbow, Iris, due to its colorful salts. It is used in fountain-pen nibs and hypodermic needles.
Preparation : Iridium is triturated with lactose sugar.
Remedy Profile : Those who respond most effectively to Iridium met. are generally well presented and confident. If not successful in their plans or projects, or if they become ill and exhausted, they may experience confusion, with poor concentration and the feeling that their minds are empty.
Classic physical symptoms linked to Iridium met. include exhaustion and anemia following a bout of illness, and muscle pain and stiffness with tender, swollen joints. There may be nervous, pinching pains in the wrists, fingers, and limbs. In the hip joints there may be scraping, smarting pains and a crawling sensation; sciatic nerve pain may radiate down the legs. Neuralgic pains, perhaps in the back of the head, may be treated with Iridium met., as may lameness or partial paralysis, especially in the elderly. The remedy is also used to help prevent suppurating abscesses in the armpits.
Symptoms Better : For cold; for being indoors; for pressure on the affected area; for continued movement.
Symptoms Worse : For talking; on the left side of the body.