### numbers

• Fractions
We say fractions like this:
1/8 one eighth , 3/7 three sevenths
2/5 two fifths, 11/16 eleven sixteenths
We normally use a singular verb after fractions below 1.
Three quarters of a ton is too much.
We use a plural noun with fractions and decimals over 1.
• Decimals
We say decimal fractions like this:
O'125 nought point one two five (NOT 0,125—nought comma one two five)
3.7 three point seven
• nought, zero, nil etc
The figure 0 is usually called nought in British English, and zero in American English.
When we say numbers one figure at a time, 0 is often called oh (like the letter 0).
My account number is four one three oh six.
In measurements of temperature, 0 is called zero.
Zero degrees Centigrade is thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit.
Zero scores in team games are called nil (American zero).
Zero in tennis and similar games is called love.
• Telephone numbers
We say each figure separately. When the same figure comes twice, we usually say double (British English only).
307 4922 three oh seven four nine double two.
• Kings and Queens
We say the numbers like this:
Henry the i Louis the Fourteenth
Henry VIII Louis XIV
• Floors
The ground floor of a British house is the first floor of an American house; the British first floor is the American second floor, etc.
GB
second floor first floor ground floor
 y IBM ip =i p| jo
US
third floor second floor first floor
• and
In British English, we use and between the hundreds and the tens in a number.
310 three hundred and ten (US three hundred ten)
5,642 five thousand, six hundred and forty-two
Note that in writing we use commas (,) to separate thousands.
• a and one
We can say a hundred or one hundred, a thousand or one thousand. One is more formal.
I want to live for a hundred years.
Pay Mr J Baron one thousand pounds, (on a cheque)
We only use a at the beginning of a number. Compare: a hundred three thousand one hundred We can use a with other measurement words. a pint a foot a mile.
• Plurals without-s
After a number or determiner, hundred, thousand, million and dozen have no final -s. Compare:
five hundred pounds hundreds of pounds
several thousand times It cost thousands
Other number expressions have no -s when they are used as adjectives.
a five-pound note a three-mile walk
• Measurements
We use be in measurements.
She's five feet eight (inches tall).
I'm sixty-eight kilos.
What shoe size are you?
In an informal style, we often use foot instead of feefwhen we talk about people's heights.
My father's six foot two.
• Money
1p one penny (informal: one p /pi:/) or a penny 5p five pence (informal: five p)
£3.75 three pounds seventy-five When we use sums of money as adjectives, we use singular forms. a five pound note (NOT a five-pounds note)
When expressions of measurement, amount and quantity are used as adjectives, they are normally singular.
a ten-mile walk (HOT a ten-miles walk)
six two-hour lessons
a three-month-old baby
We can use possessives in expressions of time.
a week's holiday four days ' journey
• there are . ..
When we count the number of people in a group, we often use the structure there are + number + of+ pronoun.
There are only seven of us here today.
There were twelve of us in my family.
• Spoken calculations
Common ways of calculating are:
2 + 2 = 4 two and two is/are four (informal)
two plus two equals four (formal)
7-4 = 3 four from seven is three (informal)
seven minus four equals three (formal)
3 x 4 = 12
three fours are twelve (informal)
three multiplied by four equals twelve (formal)
9 / 3 = 3
nine divided by three equals three
• 'copula1 verbs
• 'social' language
• (a) few and (a) little
• (be) used to + noun or... -ing
• (Great) Britain, the United Kingdom, the British Isles and England
• -ing form ('gerund')
• -ing form after to
• -ing form or infinitive?
• abbreviations
• above and over
• across and over
• across and through
• active verb forms
• actual(ly)
• after (conjunction)
• after all
• afternoon, evening and night
• ages
• ago
• all (of) with nouns and pronouns
• all and every
• all and whole
• all right
• all with verbs
• all, everybody and everything
• almost and nearly
• also, as well and too
• although and though
• among and between
• and
• and after try, wait, go etc
• another
• any (= 'it doesn't matter which')
• appear
• articles: a and an; pronunciation of the
• articles: a/an
• articles: countable and uncountable nouns
• articles: introduction
• articles: special rules and exceptions
• articles: talking in general
• articles: the
• articles: the difference between a/an and the
• as and like
• as if and as though
• as much/many ... as ...
• as well as
• as, because and since (reason)
• as, when and while (things happening at the same time)
• as...as ...
• at all
• at, in and on (place)
• at, in and on (time)
• be + infinitive
• be with auxiliary do
• be: progressive tenses
• because and because of
• before (conjunction)
• before (preposition) and in front of
• begin and start
• big, large, great and tall
• born
• borrow and lend
• both (of) with nouns and pronouns
• both with verbs
• both... and...
• bring and take
• British and American English
• but = except
• by: time
• can and could: ability
• can and could: forms
• can with remember, understand, speak, play, see, hear, feel, taste and smell
• can: permission, offers, requests and orders
• can: possibility and probability
• close and shut
• come and go
• comparison: comparative and superlative adjectives
• comparison: comparative and superlative adverbs
• comparison: much, far etc with comparatives
• comparison: using comparatives and superlatives
• conditional
• conjunctions
• contractions
• countable and uncountable nouns
• country
• dare
• dates
• determiners
• discourse markers
• do + -ing
• do and make
• do: auxiliary verb
• during and for
• during and in
• each and every
• each other and one another
• each: grammar
• either... or...
• either: determiner
• ellipsis (leaving words out)
• else
• emphasis
• emphatic structures with it and what
• enjoy
• enough
• even
• eventual(ly)
• ever
• every and every one
• except
• except and except for
• exclamations
• excuse me, pardon and sorry
• expect, hope, look forward, wait, want and wish
• explain
• fairly, quite, rather and pretty
• far and a long way
• farther and further
• fast
• feel
• fewer and less
• for + object + infinitive
• for, since, from, ago and before
• for: purpose
• future perfect
• future progressive
• future: introduction
• future: present progressive and going to
• future: shall and will (interpersonal uses)
• future: shall/will (predictions)
• future: simple present
• gender (masculine and feminine language)
• get (+ object) + verb form
• get and go: movement
• go ... -ing
• go meaning'become'
• go: been and gone
• half (of)
• hard and hardly
• have (got) to
• have (got): possession, relationships etc
• have + object + verb form
• have: actions
• have: auxiliary verb
• have: introduction
• hear and listen (to)
• help
• here and there
• holiday and holidays
• home
• hope
• how and what... like?
• if only
• if so and if not
• if-sentences with could and might
• if: ordinary tenses
• if: special tenses
• ill and sick
• imperative
• in and into (prepositions)
• in case
• in spite of
• indeed
• infinitive after who, what, how etc
• infinitive of purpose
• infinitive without to
• infinitive: negative, progressive, perfect, passive
• infinitive: use
• inversion: auxiliary verb before subject
• inversion: whole verb before subject
• irregular verbs
• it's time
• it: preparatory object
• it: preparatory subject
• last and the last
• let's
• letters
• likely
• long and for a long time
• look
• look (at), watch and see
• marry and divorce
• may and might: forms
• may and might: permission
• may and might: probability
• mind
• modal auxiliary verbs
• more (of): determiner
• most (of): determiner
• much (of), many (of): determiners
• much, many, a lot etc
• must and have to; mustn't, haven't got to, don't have to, don't need to and needn't
• must: deduction
• must: forms
• must: obligation
• names and titles
• nationality words
• need
• negative questions
• negative structures
• neither (of): determiner
• neither, nor and not... either
• neither... nor...
• next and nearest
• next and the next
• no and none
• no and not
• no and not a/not any
• no more, not any more, no longer, not any longer
• non-progressive verbs
• noun + noun
• numbers
• once
• one and you: indefinite personal pronouns
• one: substitute word
• other and others
• ought
• own
• participle clauses
• participles: 'present' and 'past' participles (-ing and -ed)
• passive structures: introduction
• passive verb forms
• past tense with present or future meaning
• past time: past perfect simple and progressive
• past time: past progressive
• past time: present perfect progressive
• past time: present perfect simple
• past time: simple past
• past time: the past and perfect tenses (introduction)
• perfect tenses with this is the first time..., etc
• personal pronouns (I, me, it etc)
• play and game
• possessive with determiners (a friend of mine, etc)
• possessive's: forms
• possessive's: use
• possessives: my and mine, etc
• prepositional verbs and phrasal verbs
• prepositions after particular words and expressions
• prepositions at the end of clauses
• prepositions before particular words and expressions
• prepositions: expressions without prepositions
• present tenses: introduction
• present tenses: present progressive
• present tenses: simple present
• progressive tenses with always
• punctuation: apostrophe
• punctuation: colon
• punctuation: comma
• punctuation: dash
• punctuation: quotation marks
• punctuation: semi-colons and full stops
• question tags
• questions: basic rules
• questions: word order in spoken questions
• quite
• real(ly)
• reflexive pronouns
• relative pronouns
• relative pronouns: what
• relative pronouns: whose
• relatives: identifying and non-identifying clauses
• remind
• reported speech and direct speech
• reported speech: orders, requests, advice etc
• reported speech: pronouns; 'here and now' words; tenses
• reported speech: questions
• requests
• say and tell
• see
• seem
• shall
• should
• should after why and how
• should and would
• should, ought and must
• should: (If I were you) I should ...
• similar words
• since (conjunction of time): tenses
• singular and plural: anybody etc
• singular and plural: irregular plurals
• singular and plural: plural expressions with singular verbs
• singular and plural: pronunciation of plural nouns
• singular and plural: singular words ending in -s
• singular and plural: singular words with plural verbs
• singular and plural: spelling of plural nouns
• slow(ly)
• small and little
• smell
• so am I, so do I etc
• so and not with hope, believe etc
• some and any
• some/any and no article
• some: special uses
• somebody and anybody, something and anything, etc
• sound
• spelling and pronunciation
• spelling: -ise and -ize
• spelling: -ly
• spelling: capital letters
• spelling: ch and tch, k and ck
• spelling: doubling final consonants
• spelling: final -e
• spelling: full stops with abbreviations
• spelling: hyphens
• spelling: ie and ei
• spelling: y and i
• subject and object forms
• subjunctive
• such and so
• suggest
• surely
• sympathetic
• take
• take (time)
• tall and high
• taste
• telephoning
• telling the time
• tenses in subordinate clauses
• that: omission
• the same
• there is
• think
• this and that
• too
• travel, journey and trip
• unless and if not
• until and by
• until and to
• used to + infinitive
• verbs with object complements
• verbs with two objects
• way
• weak and strong forms
• well
• when and if
• whether and if
• whether... or...
• which, what and who: question words
• who ever, what ever, how ever etc
• whoever, whatever, whichever, however, whenever and wherever
• will
• wish
• worth ... -ing
• would
• would rather
• Things Successful Teachers Do Differently
• Athens
• Weird Plants
• Washington
• Most handsome football players and his Hairstyle 2028
• Healthy Breakfast

### Learning where to hit the cue ball

(An Aiming System)Most beginners dont realize that learning to hit straight in step two is the hardest part of learning pool. If you have learned to accurately hit where you aim, then all you need is someone to show you where to aim the cue ball.Ever had a friend place a finger on the table to show you the point to aim and you found that by aiming there you made the shot easily? Well, the ghost ball system is a simple little trick to find that point without needing someone else.You can read my article on the ghost ball system for a detailed explanation of how it works. For longer distance cut shots, I recommend using the parallel line aiming system.Simple Advice? Imagine a ghost ball pushing the target ball into the pocket from the opposite side and aim at the center of the ghost ball. Check out this video for a quick explanation.When I am teaching students to aim, I start by giving them progressively increasing cut shots. I start with a straight shot, then an easy cut shot, then a tougher one until they are comfortable with most cut shots.When aiming, I usually place a second object ball as a ghost ball and ask them to use it to line up. Once they do so, and are down on the shot, I remove the ghost ball and let them shoot. After doing this enough number of times, I make them repeat the shot without a ghost ball. In case they start missing, I bring back the ghost ball and let them shoot a few more shots.I then try to give them the gist of the aiming without aiming concept of just getting down on the shot and trusting their subconscious mind. Surprisingly, complete beginners are able to pick up the system a lot faster than people who have been shooting for a while.

Modify